Hello client, as you read this write up, please follow me with understanding so that the borehole you want to drill we make good meaning to you and there will be no quarrel with the contractor after drilling the borehole, as this may occur if you do not read this and finally embark on the project and could not get what you expected.
Coal city as the name implies is pre dominated with coal as everybody know, but this coal in geological terms is called SHALE and this type of formation does not yield much water due to their composition, not that they don’t have water, they do if you are able to carry out a geophysical investigation of the area by a good geologist who will be able to interpret the readings obtained during sounding.
The interpretation of the readings will be able to inform us about fractured and hard shale positions below ground level so that both the driller and the client will have pre knowledge of the yield of the borehole.
This result from the geologist is very important because it will inform us about the depth, the yield, the soil composition so that you know the type of rig that can do the work effectively without quarrel from the client.
Most predominant composition of this shale is clay and hard stone (chippings) and for anybody to break through these barriers must drill the borehole with DTH hammer rig that has the facilities of breaking those stones.
When this is achieved and drilling processes completed the installation of pump follows, in your pre drilling report from the geologist he will recommend the list capacity of pump to install based on the yield of the borehole and this stand true because of the composition of the soil, for shale or coal does not yield much water like that of sand, except there is a small sand / shale mixed up due to the way nature has formed it that you may see boreholes yielding like that drilled in sharp sand formation, apart from this mixed formation any other water that come into the well looks for cracks or fractures that it can flow through to get to the borehole.
This is the major reasons why boreholes drill in shale (coal) area always pump for some time and then stop for the next two to six hours as the water finds its way to the hole , it is not about depth, it is not about size of the hole but about the soil formation.
Many clients have had quarrel with their borehole service provider because they refused to read the geological report given to them and thereby zero their mind that they are spending their money to have borehole that will be productive 24 hrs, please client always read your report and ask necessary questions before embarking on any drilling.
The basic facts and truth about boreholes in (coal) shale formation in Enugu town, Agbani, Awgu, Ebonyi, Mpu, Mmaku, Bende

  • The borehole yields are naturally low.
  • The yield is not about depth or size of borehole but natural.
  • The water is good as any other water source is good from natural sense.
  • Good water is subjected to water analysis in a Lab to know the WHO Standard of it.
  • Boreholes in shale formation are not for commercial purpose for those that intend to sale water or use it for Hotel business.
  •  Boreholes in shale formation can only be productive for domestic use when you understand the principle of operation.
  •  One of the amazing testimonies of boreholes in shale formation is that it does not dry up during dry season as hand dug wells do but the cracks or the fractures keep expanding as the months and year go by as you pump.
  • The borehole after drilling need enough patients to get it clear because as the water is pump out fresh water that comes into the hole must take the nature of the soil formation until the gravel that was poured around the casing pipes settle properly.
  • For best result of water boreholes in shale formation always pump morning and evening or as describe by the contractor,  water boreholes in Enugu does not contain salt or smell as other boreholes in Abakaliki area where you have to battle with salty water and odor.
  • Please note that whatever minutes the submersible pump runs and stop is subject to improve as the borehole continue to be as some will pump for 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes before it stops, that does not mean that the borehole is not productive or it is a well.
  • There are much difference between hand dug well and borehole in shale formation, the maximum depth of any well is 60 ft (18 m) with diameter of 2 ft 9 inches or 3ft maximum as it narrow down the earth and are subject to all manner of contamination like waste water from drainage and sewage (Toilet) system, insects and dead rats , always seen around it but still some people drink and cook with the water without treatment and without water analysis at the laboratory yet they are proud that they have water.
  • Borehole in shale formation are narrow machine drill holes of 6 inches or 10 inches cased with U pvc or Steel API pipes of 4 inches to 6 inches diameter pipes of 10 to 16 bar to a depth of 30 to  300 meters (98 ft – 984.25 ft) below ground level and Enugu have such borehole that is up to 300m currently functional and nothing like bacterial infection or contamination from sewages in such depth but the boreholes suffers from natural low yield syndromes (NLYS) and nothing more, so client be patient and manage your borehole and water from it and go for water treatment if you can afford it.  

With these few facts about water boreholes in Enugu town you can go ahead to drill and own a borehole by conducting a geophysical survey of your location, and follow the recommendation, do not compare your neighbor borehole or hand dug well to yours if you already have one or you want to, for it is not by eye survey but by geophysical survey of your area.